The most dangerous borders

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Today the borders of states, although they are legalized almost everywhere, are still a zone of contention. Below are the main border conflicts that have turned these strips of land into rather dangerous places.

Sudan and South Sudan. The length of the border between these states is 1,350 miles. In 2005, the civil war in Sudan, which lasted for 22 years, finally ended! The BBC reports that during this time, one and a half million people have become victims of the struggle for power. Finally, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed, which carved out the most troubled zone, South Sudan, into autonomy. But a referendum was soon held there, which decided on the independence of this region. As a result, on July 9, 2011, South Sudan became independent. But the neighbor did not leave these lands alone, in June he carried out border bombing. Their result was the resettlement of 113 thousand to other border states. Although on June 20, the official government of Khartoum made peace with the People's Liberation Movement of Sudan (these southerner rebels stood at the head of the new state). Even peace agreements with the participation of the UN and the African Union do not stop Khartoum (the capital of Sudan) from continuing their hostilities in the Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan.

India and Pakistan. The border between these countries is 1,800 miles long. This territory is very dangerous, because India and Pakistan have fought three times lately, the death toll exceeded 115 thousand people. In addition, both countries continue to build up their nuclear potential. Since the official demarcation of territories in 1947, the border areas of the two countries have been marked by constant violence. As a result, more than a million people died here. The military losses in the clashes between India and Pakistan are not so great - only 15 thousand people. But only in Kashmir, a disputed territory, 100 thousand civilians were killed. The ceasefire line, also known as the line of control, runs in three areas of Kashmir under Indian rule. It also exists in the two regions of Kashmir belonging to Pakistan. Both sides call for the surrender of the disputed territories to them, but, naturally, no one responds to the calls of the enemy. Although today there is no full-scale hostilities in Kashmir, there are frequent exchanges of fire between the troops of the two countries. In the end, in the summer of 2011, India and Pakistan sat down for the first time in recent years to formally negotiate the disputed territories. Even though the Indian Foreign Minister said that she came with open thoughts and in the hope of a constructive one, there is little hope for a diplomatic settlement of the old conflict. And the rates are gradually increasing. Most of Pakistan's military budget goes precisely to confrontation with a dangerous neighbor. As a result, Islamabad today has the seventh largest army in the world, on which 16% of the state budget is spent. And these expenses practically defy public scrutiny and control.

Afghanistan and Pakistan. Here the border is 1,500 miles. The greatest danger in these lands is posed by the weak influence of the law, a large number of al-Qaeda militants and other groups, and frequent bombing by unguided unmanned aircraft. Everyone has long known that these territories are one of the most dangerous in the world. Kabul believes that the 1,500-kilometer Durand Line cannot be considered an international border with Pakistan. The Afghan government claims Pashtun lands in its neighbor's northwest. The UN estimates that there are 1.7 million registered Afghan refugees in Pakistan alone. Unstable, occupation and constant civil war led them there. The history of the border conflict is already a century old. The reason for the confrontation is that Pashtuns make up 40% of the population of Afghanistan. And in Pakistan, this nation is 15-20%. So the Pashtun nationalists are stirring up the conflict on both sides. They dream about the creation of an independent Pashtunistan, created on the border lands of both countries. Since May 2007, the confrontation between the Afghan and Pakistani military has become especially fierce. The troops are constantly suffering numerous losses. But one side accuses the other of stirring up the conflict.

USA and Mexico. The border between the two states stretches for 1950 miles. The conflict broke out here in December 2006. Then the President of Mexico Felipe Calderon decided to start a serious fight against drug cartels. For this, 10 thousand soldiers and policemen were sent to war with them. The head of the country took an oath to crush the mafia clans. The troops were led by a "heavyweight politician" - Foreign Minister Razes Akuna. He, in turn, promised to return the territory to the state, in fact, seized by crime. Lawlessness began on both sides of the border. Vicious revenge has spawned a wave of murders, both in Mexico and the United States. Every day drug cartels are fighting for their existence. The authorities report that over the past 4 years, 40 thousand people have died here, one way or another involved in the distribution of drugs. Half of these are in the six Mexican states adjacent to the border. Hundreds of thousands more Mexicans lost their homes and were forced to move either with relatives away from dangerous areas or in the United States. Although much of the bloodshed is believed to take place in Mexico, the cities of El Paso and Texas have earned the dubious notoriety of being the most dangerous border settlements in the United States. 2010 turned out to be especially bloody. Of the 15,000 killed, 3,100 were in Ciudad Juarez. This Mexican city is located on the banks of the Rio Grande, and on the other side of the border is the American city of El Paso.

Cambodia and Thailand. There are 500 miles of common border between the states. But this territory remains controversial since the colonial past of both countries. As a result, dozens of people are dying here, thousands of people were displaced on both sides of the border. The cause of the conflict lies in the Preah Vihea temple, which is located just on the border. Thailand claims that these lands have never been completely delineated. A map drawn up a hundred years ago during the French occupation of Cambodia has been criticized. There is no complete clarity in it. For a long time there were disputes, until in 1962 the International Court of Justice ruled - to give the ancient temple of the XI century to Cambodia. But the dispute over the 1.8 square mile land around the sacred site has never been resolved. In recent years, tensions between neighbors have only grown. Indeed, in 2008, UNESCO announced the inclusion of the temple in the list of World Heritage Sites in Cambodia. Although this decision was initially supported by the Thai government, it subsequently backfired. Nationalist groups in the country fueled confrontation at the state level in every possible way.

Congo and Angola. The border between these countries is 1,560 miles. The main danger for women here is that thousands of girls and women, displaced by circumstances from Angola, are subjected to violence from the security services of both countries. It would seem that relations between countries should be excellent. After all, it was Angola that helped the government of Congo to fight off its neighbors - Uganda and Rwanda during the devastating war of 1998-2003. But good relations between neighbors quickly deteriorated. This manifested itself in the constant disputes over the revision of borders, the rights to own oil fields. And all this happened against the background of how the Congo made peace with its eastern neighbors - Rwanda and Uganda. As a result, both countries began to carry out mass evictions of residents from border areas. This happened literally by punitive measures. In 2099 alone, 211 thousand people left the border lands. Now vulnerable refugees are held hostage by martial law, but women are the hardest. The UN reports that Congolese girls and women displaced from Angola's border areas are constantly subjected to sexual violence on both sides of the border. Such a large number of cases was shocking even for a region accustomed to such phenomena. In January 2011 alone, local leaders, community leaders, reported 182 cases of rape in seven border villages in Angola. The UN mission confirmed 1357 such cases in only one border village in 6-8 months of 2010!

India and Bangladesh. The border between the countries is almost 2,500 miles long. Over the past 10 years, only the citizens of Bangladesh in these territories have killed 1000 people. The countries are historically and geographically closely related. Bangladesh was once called East Pakistan. He gained independence from West Pakistan during the bloody events and the 1971 civil war. At the same time, India supported the new country in every possible way. The conflict cost the lives of a million people, and Bangladesh's economy and infrastructure were severely damaged. Since then, the young state has been following the path of restoration. In terms of its length, the border ranks fifth in the world. As a result, illegal immigrants constantly flow through it to India. As a result, about 10-20 million Bangladeshi natives infiltrated the neighboring country.

North Korea and South Korea. There are only 150 miles of common border between these countries. The danger here is off scale - the border fortifications are filled with two million soldiers, and North Korea also has nuclear weapons. When the Korean War ended in 1953, both sides decided to withdraw their forces from the front line. Thus, a 2.5 mile wide demilitarized buffer zone was to be formed. Although both sides agreed to a ceasefire, a formal peace agreement was never signed. In fact, the two countries are still at war. Although the demilitarized zone separating the two Koreas has been "peaceful" for sixty years, in fact, this border is the most militarized. After all, it is patrolled on both sides by two million soldiers.

Venezuela and Colombia. The length of the border between these states is 1275 miles. Recently, hundreds of left-wing rebels have left Venezuela for neighboring Colombia. Recently, all diplomatic relations were severed between the countries, and Colombian President Alvaro Urbibe also filed a complaint against Venezuela with the Organization of American States. The country's leader accused his colleague, Hugo Chavez, of supporting the rebels from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. Another revolutionary organization, the National Liberation Army, is also allegedly funded by Venezuela. The rebels have been fighting for half a century to overthrow the government of Colombia. In 2011, relations between the countries improved significantly. In Colombia, a new President, Juan Manuel Santos, came to power in August 2010. One of his first actions was to establish good relations with the neighboring country and personally with Hugo Chavez. Warming relations between the two countries have significantly affected the position of the leftist rebels. After all, earlier they could hide for a long time in Venezuela, hiding from the security forces of Colombia. But the border area remains quite dangerous to this day. The FARC revolutionaries are blowing up oil and gas pipelines here, attacking trains and waging a real war with the Colombian special services.

Chad and Sudan. The border between these African countries is 850 miles long. The danger here is posed by armed rebels who hunt hundreds of thousands of refugees from Darfur. This region has become the site of a conflict between the two countries. Here, in the west of Sudan, civil war broke out, spreading to Chad. Only in January 2010, after years of mutual attacks, Chad and Sudan signed a peace that was supposed to end the clashes and prevent armed rebels from using the territories unhindered. By that time, the border had been closed since 2003. When it opened, 262,000 Sudanese refugees from neighboring Darfur were already living in 12 refugee camps in eastern Chad. And even earlier, 180 thousand displaced Africans got here. Which were placed in 38 camps. The countries normalized their relations and even managed to reach peace agreements with some of the militant leaders who control the border lands. Nonetheless, inter-ethnic clashes and human rights violations still occur here. The authorities cannot do anything about this yet.

Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The total area of ​​these two countries is 900 miles. But these places are restless. In the north of Yemen, the leader of the local zeidites al-Houthi is active, the Arabian Peninsula itself is filled with al-Qaeda supporters, and the unrest in Yemen could generate a massive flow of emigrants to the more prosperous Saudi Arabia. Unsurprisingly, in 2003, she started building a fence along its border. But just a year later, the work was suspended. The neighbor began to complain about the violation of the previous border agreements. In 2009, the regular Saudi army waged a small war with Yemeni rebels. This was the reason for the continuation of the work. Riyadh has allocated large sums to build a network of barriers. Rumors that the Yemeni rebels might be backed by Iran also added to the unrest. As a result, the rebels led by al-Houthi joined the Ziyadis, who professed the Shiite direction of Islam. Today, Saudi Arabia motivates the creation of the fence by the fact that it is necessary to protect the country from armed terrorists and from illegal immigrants. It will also help in the fight against drug and arms smuggling.

China and North Korea. The border between these countries stretches for 880 miles. The friendly relations between the countries led to a weakened protection of the common border. But soon Beijing became worried. It turned out that the unstable situation in North Korea led to a mass exodus of citizens. As a result, thousands of refugees tried to enter China illegally. When there was a great famine in Korea in the late 90s, the border was literally flooded with 100-300 thousand people. China decided it was time to build fortifications. Here in 2006 barbed wire and concrete barriers appeared. In November 2010, China accelerated work. After all, humanitarian organizations began to publish reports that a poor harvest of potatoes, barley and wheat in North Korea could lead to hunger for six million people in the country. To date, China has erected a nine-kilometer fence along the Yaulu River and around the Chinese city of Dangdong. It is here that refugees most often try to cross the border.

Israel and Syria. There are only 50 miles of border between these countries. But the situation here is extremely unstable. After all, the instability in Syria can be used to create a border conflict. This can distract people from internal problems. Today Israel and Syria are still officially at war. But for 37 years, the border between them remained a relatively calm place. Today, Israeli authorities accuse Syrian President Bashar al-Assad of trying to convince protesters to cross the border. This measure is aimed at diverting attention from the merciless repression carried out in Syria against the protestors.In May 2011, during popular unrest in Syria, hundreds of citizens invaded the Golan Heights, marking the day of the Nakba, the creation of Israel in 1948. Israeli soldiers responded by firing on them. Then four people were killed, several dozen more were wounded. All this time, the northern border of Israel and Lebanon was considered much more hectic. In Rafah, which lies between Egypt and the Gaza Strip, every person was checked for illegal weapons and money of unknown origin. However, the chaos that has now reigned in Syria can "blow up" this part of the border.

Watch the video: North Koreas dangerous border: Inside the DMZ . AJ+

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